2022年9月21日

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 研究 Organisation in 澳大利亚 (CSIRO) identified key megatrends shaping our lives for decades to come.

megatrend被视为影响社会的长期趋势, 政府, 和永久的经济, 当多个小趋势合并成一个大趋势时,这些趋势就会发生.

确定了以下5大趋势:

  1. 数字转换
  2. 投资供应链弹性
  3. 本地化和离家更近
  4. 不断变化的经济格局
  5. 步入新常态

该组织的最新期刊之一, 未来世界:未来几十年影响博彩论坛生活方式的全球大趋势 将气候变化列为影响就业的一个关键方面.

结果是, 环境, 社会, 当谈到新劳动力时,公司治理也被提上了议事日程.

这些大趋势如何应用到工程师身上?

根据组织的说法, there will be a need to consider the role of trained individuals in key areas that will allow the world to accommodate growing populations, 但不能以牺牲环境为代价.

以下工程领域将蓬勃发展,并带来大量就业机会:

图片由 语。乔杜里 on Unsplash

人工智能

Industries and policy spheres around the world are increasingly adopting AI technology and developing AI capabilities.

对人工智能的研究正在迅速增加, 从2000年到2019年,同行评议的AI出版物数量增长了近12倍. AI代表3.2019年占所有出版物的8%,而为0.8% in 2000.

AI在专利中所占的份额也从2000年的2%增长到2%.9% in 2019.

据该杂志报道,虽然博彩论坛R&D在AI上的支出,全球AI市场的规模更普遍地在增加. 据估计,该市场将从2021年的4550亿美元增长到2024年的6650亿美元. The global growth in AI research and investment is likely to continue and transform how all industries operate in the coming decades.

工程自动化是进一步加速该行业发展的关键领域之一, 工程师不仅仅是构建AI解决方案的一部分, 但他们也是人工智能研究人员和专利建设者的一部分.

土木工程

人们住在城市的吸引力还在继续,2018年,55.全球3%的人口居住在城市地区,预计这一数字将增长到60%.到2030年4%,到68年.到2050年,全球城市人口的大部分将集中在非洲和亚洲.

The number of megacities with 10 million or more inhabitants will also increase from 33 in 2018 to 43 by 2030.

要做到这一点,土木工程至关重要. 不仅仅是改善和扩大基础设施, 但要做得精明, and aligned with new building practices that are extremely attuned to sustainability and counteracting climate change.

图片由 西蒙Kadula on Unsplash

行业4.0

采用高性能计算, AI, 机器学习, 传感器和物联网(IoT), 机器人, 及其他行业4.0技术正在全球发展. 下一波数字创新浪潮预计将在全球产生数万亿美元的收入.

澳大利亚政府已投资600万美元建立6个第4工业.0个测试实验室来支持工业4的采用.0技术.

There are untapped opportunities for 澳大利亚 to accelerate digital adoption and its associated productivity gains and engineers will be at the helm of bridging this gap.

新兴国防技术

国防战略和规划正受到高速科技进步的影响, variable-trajectory, 精确瞄准导弹、人工智能(AI)和先进自主系统, 还有网络/信息战.

The number of countries with strong or leading capabilities in these areas of technology may increase or diversify in the future. 这些技术已经被用于当前的战争和灰色地带冲突.

It is possible these technologies may decrease the usefulness of certain defense equipment and strategies and heighten the effectiveness of others.

德国汉堡的一个氢气加气站.

氢在增长

The global hydrogen industry is growing rapidly given the potential role it 可以 play in decarbonization.

Over 30 countries have developed hydrogen roadmaps or have zero-carbon emissions targets that involve hydrogen strategies.

澳大利亚完全有条件成为绿色氢气的主要生产国和出口国, 这得益于其丰富的可再生能源资源和熟练的劳动力.

亚洲国家对清洁能源的需求正在迅速增长, 特别是在日本和新加坡,这两个国家无法生产足够的清洁能源来满足需求.

显著的基础设施投资和效率提高, 然而, 需要多少才能实现澳大利亚的氢潜能, given that green hydrogen is currently three times more expensive than blue (natural-gas-powered) hydrogen.

气候变化影响关键基础设施

In the past infrastructure like pavements and railways were built using materials and methods in stable climatic conditions.

这已经改变了. High temperatures can increase the risk that road pavements will rut or railways will expand and buckle.

One analysis of transport networks across the European Union and the 联合王国 estimated that operational and maintenance costs 可以 increase by 1.3% or $1.40亿,如果全球变暖加剧.

Just these seven points on identified megatrends provide a dialogue that engineers are vital in terms of employment, 作为高技能和再技能的工程师, 以及新工程师, 可以

博彩论坛会在需要一项或多项与人工智能相关的工作的行业工作, 土木工程或氢动力.

These megatrends have scientific thinking at their core and the future is one that relies on astute technology and a built environment that is incredibly strong and modern.

一辆正在加州充电的电动汽车

电动汽车臂架

电动汽车的成本下降速度快于预期, 这得益于锂离子电池成本的大幅降低.

预计到2025年,电动汽车和内燃机汽车将达到同等价格.

Various car manufacturers have committed to discontinuing the production of internal combustion engine cars within the next two decades, 包括沃尔沃, 福特, 本田和通用汽车.

挪威在这方面走在了前列,电动汽车占其市场份额的56%.

澳大利亚的电动汽车普及率较低,只有1.1%的市场份额是电动汽车. 加快向电子交通的过渡, 澳大利亚's Future Fuels Strategy for instance is focused on developing the grid infrastructure and charging stations needed to support more electric vehicles on 澳大利亚n ro广告.

This means that engineers are not only building the vehicles of the road but need to build ro广告 that are inclusive of the needs of electric vehicles going forward.

那么,这些大趋势将如何塑造未来的劳动力呢?

澳大利亚财政部最近在2022年就业和技能峰会期间发布了新计划.

Here the government acknowledged that for the next 30 years the transition to a net-zero economy will impact the 澳大利亚n economy.

The make the transition as smooth as possible the government acknowledged that the adoption of new and emerging technologies is pertinent and that it will lead to an increase in demand for new skills and business models.

一些预测包括:

· Growth in demand for critical minerals will increase and 澳大利亚n lithium exports are estimated to more than double. This is to meet the demands of lithium batteries that are needed in many green or alternative energy movements.

  • 向绿色产品和资源的过渡允许澳大利亚人从事农业工作, 制造业和资源行业的就业岗位, 并参与加强该国新的收养做法. 此外,还需要提高数字素养, 结果是, 具有这种素养的工人将能够更有效地参与到实现净零目标的工作中来.
  • The technology industry has grown considerably and it’s estimated that 1 in 16 澳大利亚ns are working in the sector. 这意味着随着技术的进一步发展,该领域已经有了一批熟练的劳动力.
  • STEM职业的就业率预计将增长14%.在截至2026年11月的五年中,这一比例为2%,是非stem职业的两倍左右.

Making the most of the opportunities created by transformations is the key to creating the next generation of high-value-adding jobs.

If you are able to tick just one of these boxes in your acquired skills – you 可以 potentially face job security but also be part of the generation that combats climate change.

引用:

VicHealth & CSIRO (2015) Bright Futures: Megatrends impacting the mental well-being of young Victorians over the coming 20 years. 维多利亚州健康促进基金会,墨尔本.

Naughtin C *, Hajkowicz * # , Schleiger E, Bratanova一, 卡梅伦一, Zamin T, Dutta A(2022)博彩论坛的未来世界:未来几十年影响博彩论坛生活方式的全球大趋势. 布里斯班,澳大利亚:CSIRO.

澳大利亚政府、财政部. (2022). 就业和技能峰会议题文件.

  • 此字段用于验证目的,应该保持不变.

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